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Proper 10 | Ordinary Time 15, Cycle B (2015)

THEME OF THE DAY:  It’s all in God’s hands.  The texts invite us to celebrate our being lost in grace in all our undertakings (Justification By Grace, Sanctification, Church, Worship, and Social Ethics).

Psalm 24
This Psalm has been attributed to David.  It is a liturgy on entering the sanctuary of the Jerusalem Temple, perhaps in connection with a procession of the Ark of the Covenant.  It seems useful to reiterate the conclusion of many scholars that references to David in the Psalms like this one may have been a way of using him to represent the inner life of all his subjects and so of all the faithful (Brevard Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, p.521).  In that sense this song is about the mandate that all the faithful worship Yahweh, with confidence that He is Present in worship.  At two points in the Psalm the word Selah appears, suggesting times when musical interludes were to be played.        

The Psalm begins with an acknowledgement of the Lord as Creator, that the earth is Yahweh’s.  Reference to His founding the earth on the seas is suggestive of the Creation Account in Genesis (1:2,6) (vv.1-2).  The Psalmist grapples with the question of who should be admitted to the sanctuary (v.3).  The answer to the question is given: Only those with clean hands and pure hearts, who do not lift themselves to what is false (vv.4-6).  Whether this entails one must have sufficient moral qualities or simply travel with God is an open question (perhaps it is both).  In another Psalm concerned with worthiness to enter the sanctuary (132:9), righteousness [tsedaqah] is deemed essential.  We should highlight once again that the concept of “righteousness” even in an Old Testament context is not to imply that the believer lives in faultless conformity to some moral norm.  It has to do with living in right relationship with God (Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol.1, pp.370-371).  In the Psalm’s final verses, the choir outside the gate requests entrance, so that the God of Israel in the Ark may enter.  He is praised as the King [melek] of Glory [kabod] (vv.7-10).           

Application: A sermon on this Psalm affords an opportunity to reflect on worship, on how God is Present in our sanctuaries, and so worship is in His hands.  Even our worthiness to worship is not a matter of what we do, but the relationship He creates with us.  It is His Presence that makes us worthy to worship (Justification By Grace and Sanctification). 


Psalm 85:8-13
This is prayer for deliverance from national adversity. It is a Psalm of the Korahites (a group of professional Levitical musicians).  Thus the verses seem to have origins in The Jerusalem Temple.  The opening reference to God’s favor to His land and its people (v.1) could be occasioned by the return of the Exiles from captivity in Babylon.  But it could also be taken as Messianic Prophecy, describing all Christ will do.  The bulk of the Lesson (vv.8-13) includes an oracle of assurance, likely delivered by a priest.  A message of salvation/safety [yesha] (v.9) is  delivered.  Righteousness [tsedeq] and peace [shalom] are said to kiss each other (v.10).  We should highlight once again that the concept of “righteousness” even in the Old Testament has to do primarily with living in right relationship with God.  See the discussion of the concept above in the preceding Psalm.  Thus the term in this case could refer to a vision of a just society or merely to what happens to faithful people through God’s justifying grace.  And peace [shalom] in this Jewish context refers not just to a state in which there is no combat, but to a state of well-being and thriving, to social justice (Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol.1, p.130).  Right relationship with God leads to a state of well being (Justification By Grace, Sanctification, and Social Ethics).  Likewise mercy [chesed, or loving kindness] and truth/faith [emeth] are said to meet.  Love and faith go together.  Salvation [yesha , also translated “safety”] and these new realities are said to be close at hand for those who fear [yare, that is “reverence”] Yahweh (v.9).   Thus there is a clear eschatological dimension at this point in the text, which fits the viability of interpreting the text as a Prophecy of Christ’s Coming.  Yahweh, it is said, will give what is good [tob], and this gift is related to the righteousness (restored relationship He will work out with us) going before Him like a herald before a king and also to the faithfulness [emeth, properly translated “truth”] which will spring from it (vv.11-13).  Again it seems clear that when God acts with righteousness (faithful to the Covenant relationship with the His people), faith and all good follow (Sanctification As Spontaneous Good Works).

Application: The Psalm gives occasion to celebrate God’s forgiving love and goodness (Justification By Grace and Providence), but also to relate this to what God is about to do in Christ the Coming One.  Not only do we find a loving God described here in the Old Testament, but also a vision of the Christian life (Sanctification and Social Ethics) springing spontaneously from God’s righteous actions.  The future and even our good works are in God’s hands.

2 Samuel 6:1-5,12b-19
We have already noted that the origin of this Book as a distinct text derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Septuagint), which divided the story of Israel’s monarchy into four sections (1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings).  This Book is probably the result of two or three sources: (1) Early traditions about Samuel and Saul; (2) Editor-molded materials brought together into a connected history, implying a critique of the events, deeming kingship as problematic, and so must be set under the rule of God and Samuel His Prophet; (3) Incorporating the previous strand into the more Deuteronomistic (D) history (the result of sweeping religious reforms under King Josiah in 621 BC).  The role of this last source not surprisingly entails that a central theme in the Book is the struggle to remain obedient to Torah, to be God’s covenant people, and to inherit divine blessings.  This Book especially relates to the reign of David as King of Israel.  This is the story of David’s bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem in order to add to the city’s prestige as the new capital and Saul’s daughter Michal’s negative reaction to it.

The account begins with David gathering the chosen men of Israel to go to Baale-juhad (an error or another name for Kiriath-jearim) where The Ark of the Covenant (where Yahweh was thought to reside) was enthroned in order to bring it to Jerusalem (vv.1-2).  This would add to the prestige of David’s capital, as with the Ark present in the city it would become not just the military and political center of Israel, but also its religious center.  Uzzah and Ahio are charged with transporting the Ark.  They were sons of Abinadab who had been guarding the Ark (vv.3-4; I Samuel 7:2).  David and many in Israel celebrate with dance (v.5).  As the Ark came to Jerusalem, one of David’s wives Michal, the daughter of Saul, saw the new king dancing [karar] a ritual and despised him (vv.12,14-15).  She may have been angered over having been torn away from her husband Paltiel (3:15-16) so David could claim more legitimacy for assuming the throne.  Or she may have been embarrassed by the scant clothing he wore while dancing (v.20).  Even David assumed the priestly task of offering a sacrifice [alah] (vv.17-18a).  He then blessed [barak] the people in Yahweh’s Name and distributed food (vv.18b-19).     

Application: This is a great text for extolling the joy of worship, an even that takes us out of ourselves and into God’s hands.


Amos 7:7-15
The Complementary First Lesson is drawn from a collection of teaching and traditions concerning a Prophet who may have written during the prosperous reign of Jeroboam II in Israel (786 BC – 746 BC).  From Judah, Amos did his prophesying in the Northern Kingdom, but then after The Babylonian Exile may have returned to Judah to write a summary of his proclamation.  Some scholars contend that his addresses were gathered and combined by others to form the book.  This Lesson is a portion of the five visions of God’s judgment and restoration given to Amos and his confrontation with Amaziah, the official priest of the Northern Kingdom’s royal sanctuary in Bethel (v.10).  Yahweh reveals a wall with a plumb line to symbolize that Israel is warped beyond correction and so must be destroyed (vv.7-9).  Amaziah reports to King Jereboam that Amos was conspiring against him (vv.10-11).  Amaziah admonishes Amos to flee to Judah and cease prophesying in Bethel (vv.12-13).  Amos responds that he is no Prophet [nabi] (not part of a prophetic order common in Israel and Judah), but a herdsman summoned by Yahweh to prophecy (vv.14-15).

Application: This Lesson offers opportunities to speak out prophetically against injustices in America (Sin and Social Justice), critiquing the Church for its cooption by the establishment, but to proceed with confidence that we have been summoned by God to these undertakings, that all we can co it dependent on Him (Providence and Sanctification).

Ephesians 1:3-14
The Book is a circular letter, either written by Paul from prison late in his career or by a follower of the Apostle who had had a hand in assembling the collection of his Epistles.  These conclusions follow from the fact that the Letter includes vocabulary and stylistic characteristics different from the Pauline corpus.  It was likely addressed to a younger, later generation of Christians (1:15).

This Lesson is a thanksgiving for the blessing God has showered on the cosmos.  The blessings are related to our being elected [eklego, literally “chosen”] in Christ destined for adoption as children (vv.3-5,11).  He is said to be the Beloved [agapao] (v.6).  In Christ redemption [apolutrosiss – a loosing away] through His blood is given by grace [charis] lavished/abounded [perisseuo] on us (vv.7-8).  Reference is made to this being a mystery [musterion], an age-long purpose discussed now in the fullness of time [pleromatos ton kairon -- an eschatological image] (vv.9-10).  All things are gathered up [anakefalaiosasthai, to head up] in Christ.  This could refer to the Church as the Body of Christ or to all the world redeemed in Christ.  The Holy Spirit, said to be given to seal [chatham] or as a pledge [arrhaban, literally “earnest”] of our redemption, is given with faith in Christ (vv.13-14; cf. 1:22).

Application: This Lesson invites sermons explaining (Single) Predestination and its implications for our unity in Christ (Church) as well as the comfort this insight provides (Justification By Grace).

Mark 6:14-29
As is well known, this Book is likely the oldest of the Synoptic Gospels.  It was probably written prior to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD and was the source of other Gospels.  It is likely based on oral traditions of the Passion narrative and accounts of Jesus’ sayings (the so-called Q-source).

Although an anonymous work, the tradition of ascribing authorship to John Mark  is largely accepted, but his identity is not always clear – whether this is the John Mark referred to as an associate of Paul (Acts 12:12,25; 15:37; Colossians 4:10) or as Peter’s scribe (I Peter 5:13).  There is an extra-Biblical source (Eusebius of Caesarea, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2/1: 115-116) who designates Mark as the Apostle to Africa.  Some speculate that the original audience was the church in Rome (esp. Gentiles), as it presumes readers unfamiliar with Jewish customs and Palestinian geography (see 7:2-4,31), but it also could have been written for Palestinian Christians.  In this Lesson the beheading of John the Baptist is recounted along with Herod’s fears about Jesus.  The Markan version has more details than the other Gospels with only Matthew 14:3-12 providing the actual account of John’s death. 

Herod Antipas (the Roman tetrarch of Galilee, reigning during Jesus’ adulthood) is reported to have heard of Jesus’ Ministry and those of His Disciples.  Some say Jesus is a reincarnation of Elijah or one of the other Prophets.  Others believe that John the Baptist had risen.  Herod becomes convinced of the latter, for he had beheaded John (vv.14-16).  The account of John’s beheading follows.  Only here and in Matthew (14:1-12) are such details provided.  John is put to death by Herod for critiquing him for marrying a niece, Herodias, also the wife of his brother (vv.17-18; cf. Leviticus 18:16; 20:21).  Herodias is especially desirous of John’s death (v.19).  Herodias’ daughter [named Herodias, but actually named Salome] provides an opportunity to have her wish fulfilled, as Herodius has her dance before Herod and guests at a party in such a way as to please the ruler and in gratitude to her and her mother anything she wished David pledges to grant.  Guided by her mother she asks for John the Baptist’s head (vv,21-25).  The king is grieved [perilupos], but grants the request out of duty.  John is arrested and killed (vv.26-28).  John’s disciples claim the body and bury it (v.29).

Application: Sermons on this text can help the congregation appreciate the need for and risks involved in prophetic courage, focusing either on a pressing congregational issue or pressing social concern (Social Justice and Sin), proclaiming our total dependence on God (Justification By Grace).

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Authors of
Lectionary Scripture Notes
Norman A. Beck is the Poehlmann Professor of Theology and Classical Languages and the Chairman of the Department of Theology, Philosophy, and Classical Languages at Texas Lutheran University
Dr. Norman A. Beck
Mark Ellingsen is professor at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. Mark Ellingsen