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Proper 8 | Ordinary Time 13, Cycle B (2015)

THEME OF THE DAY:  God delivers: There’s lots of reasons to be grateful!  Texts for this Sunday remind us that God forgives us and overcomes all evil, that suffering is not His Will and that He gives us the true riches in life (Providence, Justification By Grace, and Sanctification as a life of gratitude for all He gives us).

Psalm 130
As previously noted, this is a lament prayer for deliverance from personal trouble.  It is one of the Songs of Ascent (or Pilgrim Psalms).   Recall that such Psalms are so-named for referring to the ascent of pilgrims to Jerusalem on the way to the Temple, which required of them an ascent up a mountain.  (Some instead claim that these Psalms are so named because they have an ascending style of poetic form.)

The Psalmist cries out for help out of the depths [maamaqqim] (vv.1-2).  He notes that though none are worthy to stand before God, yet He is forgiving [selchah, a sending away], not marking [shamar, literally observing] iniquities (vv.3-4).  God is portrayed as a God of steadfast love [the Hebrew term chesed is used here, and so can be translated “loving kindness” or “mercy”].  Comments in v.6 suggest that ancient Hebrews believed that God’s help often came in the early morning after a night of prayer.  Finally, the Psalmist assures that He will redeem [padah, also meaning “free”] Israel, presumably from all its national difficulties (vv.7-8).

Application: This Psalm invites sermons on God’s love, how He overlooks our Sin, even as we wallow them and the despair we often experience (Justification By Grace), or how He delivers or sets our nation free from destructive patterns like the growing poverty and racial injustice.


Psalm 30
This is a thanksgiving for healing (or restoration).  It is said to be a Song at the dedication of The Jerusalem Temple, which may indicate that it was used at the Feast of Dedication (Hannukkah) after Judas Maccabeus cleansed The Temple in 164 BC.  The Psalm is attributed to David.  It seems useful to reiterate the conclusion of many scholars that references to David in the Psalms like this one may have been a way of using him to represent the inner life of all his subjects and so of all the faithful (Brevard Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, p.521).  In that sense this song is about how all the faithful are to give thanks.

The Psalm begins with praise [rum, extolling] for God not letting the Psalmist’s foes/enemies [oyebh] to rejoice over him (vv.1-2).  These foes could be those who claimed that the illness the Psalmist endured was a deserved punishment of God.  Yahweh is said to have brought the Psalmist up from Sheol [the Pit, or abode of death removed from God’s Presence].  (Mention of the soul [nephesh] at this point is a reference to the breath of life, not indicative of the Hebrews’ belief in a distinct eternal entity like the ancient Greeks and many Christians teach.)  The Psalmist noted that before enduring his trial he had felt secure (vv.6-7a).  Then with illness, as God hid His face [panim] from the Psalmist (cf. 10:1), he turns to God, noting that God gains nothing with his death since dust cannot praise God (vv.8-10), and God restores health, clothing the Psalmist with joy/gladness [simchah].  Reference to the Psalmist taking off his sackcloth refers to removing the clothing of mourning or penitence (vv.11-12).  Another testimony to a strong doctrine of Providence emerges.  God’s wrath seems subordinate to His love (v.5).

Application: A sermon on this text allows preachers to explore how God heals when we least expect it, when things seem worst (Providence).   This insight helps make the Christian life a little less secure, but one filled with rejoicing (Sanctification).  We have a God of love Who works to deliver us, often in surprising ways.

2 Samuel 1:1, 17-27
The origin of this Book as a distinct text derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Septuagint), which divided the story of Israel’s monarchy into four sections (1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings).  This Book is probably the result of two or three sources: (1) Early traditions about Samuel and Saul; (2) Editor-molded materials brought together into a connected history, implying a critique of the events, deeming kingship as problematic, and so must be set under the rule of God and Samuel His Prophet; (3) Incorporating the previous strand into the more Deuteronomistic (D) history (the result of sweeping religious reforms under King Josiah in 621 BC).  The role of this last source not surprisingly entails that a central theme in the Book is the struggle to remain obedient to Torah, to be God’s covenant people, and to inherit divine blessings.  This Book especially relates to the reign of David as King of Israel.  This particular text is David’s lament over the deaths of Saul and Jonathan.

The scene is set after Saul’s death while David’s army had just defeated the Amalekites.  Informed by a messenger (vv.2-4), David offers laments over Saul and his son Jonathan.  He orders that the Song of the Bow from a lost book of Jashar (a collection of poetry praising Israel’s military victories) be taught in Judah (vv.17-18).  This may be the oldest song in the Bible and is the one most likely to have been an authentic composition of David.  The song begins with a lament concerning how the mighty [Israel’s beauty] have fallen (vv.19,27).  The news is not to be shared with the Philistines.  (Gath and Ashkelon were Philistine cities.) (v.20).  Saul and Jonathan are praised (vv.22-23).  The daughters of Israel are urged to weep, for Saul had clothed with luxury and expensive jewelry (v.24).  David expresses deep love for Jonathan, a love [ahobah] more wonderful than the love of women (v.26).

Application: Sermons in this Lesson will proclaim God’s gracious Providence in leading to the good things we have in life, in order that we may come to gratitude toward Him and to those we have encountered along the way (Sanctification).


Lamentations 3:22-33    
This Book is a small psalter of communal laments over Jerusalem followings its destruction by the Babylonians in 577 (586) BC.  Traditionally ascribed to Jeremiah (because of 2 Chronicles 35:25) the thought and diction are sufficiently unlike that of the Prophet to make his authorship unlikely.  The first four chapters are alphabetic acrostics (with a stanza for each of the twenty letters of the Hebrew alphabet). In this Chapter the sadness of the people are voiced by an individual.  In this Lesson the psalmist counsels penitence in acknowledgment of God’s righteousness and mercy.

God’s steadfast love [chesed, or mercy], it is proclaimed, never ceases (v.22).  His mercies are said to be new every morning, His faithfulness great.  Yahweh is said to be His portion, in Whom we can hope [yachal] (vv.23-24).  Yahweh is good [tob] to those who wait for Him, to the soul that seeks Him (v.25).   The writer states that it is good to wait quietly for the [teshuah, literally “safety”] salvation of the Lord, to bear the yoke it youth and it alone in silence, to put one’s mouth in the dust [to abase oneself] that there may be hope [tiguah] (vv.26-29).  It is good to take the insults (v.30).  Yahweh will not reject forever, we are assured.  For although He causes grief, He will have compassion according to the abundance of His steadfast love [chesed] (vv.31-32).    It is added that God does not willingly [from His heart] afflict/lower [anah] or grieve [yagah] anyone (v.33).

Application: Preaching on this Complementary First Lesson leads to sermons proclaiming God’s abundant and steadfast love, that suffering and bad times are not His will (Providence and Justification By Grace).   

2 Corinthians 8:7-15
We continue this week again to consider an Epistle written by Paul to address relations with the Corinthian church which had further deteriorated during the period after I Corinthians was written.   As previously noted, Chapters 10-13 are so different in style and tone from the first chapters as to lead many scholars to conclude that they are the “severe letter” mentioned in 2:4.  

The Lesson is an exhortation to support the collection Paul was organizing for relief of the Jerusalem church.  Praising the Corinthians’ faith in view of love for them, he urges their involvement in this collection as a test [dokimazo, literally “proving”] of the genuineness of their love, but not as command [epitogen] (vv.7-8).  Paul speaks of Christ’s generosity, that though rich [ploutizo] He became poor [ptochos] so that by His poverty we become rich (v.9).  He notes that the offering begun in the previous year (presumably interrupted due to strained relations with the Corinthian church) should be completed (vv.10-11).  The Apostle refers to eagerness to give, regarding a gift as acceptable, not according to the amount.  He proceeds to speak of the Corinthians’ abundance [perisseuma] compared to other churches (vv.12-14).  He cites Exodus 16:18, that one who had much did not have too much, and one with little did not have too little (v.15).

Application: This is a good Lesson for preaching on how the Word of God makes us rich (Justification By Grace and Sanctification), though not in terms of material blessings we “deserve” (a condemnation of our Sin), but by gaining an appreciation of Christ.  God’s propensity to confound reason and the ways of the world is also implicit (Providence).    Distinctions between proving ourselves as Christians and the Christian life as a response to Commandments (Sanctification) might also receive attention.

Mark 5:21-43
As is well known, this Book is likely the oldest of the Synoptic Gospels.  Some speculate that this Gospel’s original audience was the church in Rome (esp. Gentiles), as it presumes readers unfamiliar with Jewish customs and Palestinian geography (see 7:2-4,31), but it also could have been written for Palestinian Christians.  This Lesson is the story of the raising of Jairus’ daughter.  More details are provided in Mark’s account than in the other Synoptic equivalents (cf. Matthew 9:18-26; Luke 8:40-56).

Jesus and the Disciples land their boat on the coast of the Sea of Galilee.  He meets Jairus, a leader of a local synagogue, who pleads with Jesus to heal his daughter (vv.21-23).  The request that Jesus heal by laying on hands was not characteristic of Jewish healing in this era, but was typical of Jesus’ style (6:5; 7:32; 8:22,25).  On the way to Jarius’ house, a healing of a woman suffering from hemorrhages [puseihaimatus, flow of blood] transpires when she touches Jesus’ clothes (vv.24b-29).  When confronted by Him she concedes in fear and trembling that she was the one healed and shows Him homage.  He praises her for her faith (vv.30-34).  The Semitic farewell “go in peace” [hupage eis irenen] suggests a wholeness involved in Jesus’ healings.  For peace in ancient Jewish culture refers not just to a state of no combat, but to a state of well-being, of justice (Gerhard von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol.1, p.130).

Jairus is next informed that his daughter had died.  Jesus hears the report and assures Jairus (vv.35-36).  Only Peter, James, and John the brother of James proceed to accompany Jesus (v.37).  Mourning had already begun for the daughter when Jesus and His followers arrive.  When He claims that she is merely sleeping He is mocked (vv.37-40a).  Jesus proceeds to raise the girl “immediately/instantly” [eutheos] (vv.40-42a).  Only in the Markan version are Jesus’ actual Semitic/Aramaic words in the healing reported.  All are said to be amazed [exestesan] (v.42b).  But Jesus orders them to keep the healing secret (v.43).  (Matthew’s version [13:58] does not include this reference to the Messianic Secret – the Markan theme [1:33,44; 3:11-12; 7:36; 9:9,30] that Jesus’ Messiahship is to remain a secret except among the faithful until the Resurrection.)    

Application: With this text preachers might proclaim the comfort of the Gospel when facing the trials of life and death (Justification By Grace) and the hope of life eternal (Future Eschatology), helping the flock to appreciate that if we are confident that death is conquered the other trials of life (including injustice) are overcome.  (See the discussion of peace above.)  Another possibility might be to focus on the Messianic Secret, on how Jesus is not fully known    
by people (why so many reject Him) apart from God’s deliverance of Him and us on Easter (Apologetics and Atonement).  

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Authors of
Lectionary Scripture Notes
Norman A. Beck is the Poehlmann Professor of Theology and Classical Languages and the Chairman of the Department of Theology, Philosophy, and Classical Languages at Texas Lutheran University
Dr. Norman A. Beck
Mark Ellingsen is professor at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. Mark Ellingsen